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Apologetics Index - G

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  Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox   Academic Academic
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Gandow, Thomas

German pastor and countercult professional. Sect Commissioner of the Evangelical Church in Berlin- Brandenburg, Germany. Heads up Pfarramt für Sekten- und Weltanschauungsfragen ("Pastoral ministry for Sects and World Views.").


See our updated entry on Street Gangs

- News Database -   » About this News Archive
(May 8, 1999) The Gangs and Their God
(Apr. 25, 1999) Drawing Gangs to God

Gardner, Gerald

Gerald Gardner (1884-1964) almost single-handedly revived (invented) and popularized witchcraft for the modern world. Based on his associations, experiences, extensive occultic background, studies, travels, and familiarity with magical texts (grimories) and Margaret Murray's works, he "crafted" modern witchcraft.

Gary, Jay

Proponent of Kingdom Now theology. His book, "The Star of 2000," was the subject of a very positive review in "New Man," the magazine of the Promise Keepers. In the book, Gary sets a deadline of 2000 for the rising up of an army of "god-men" (see Joel's Army)

- Articles -
Christian Cosmic Christmas (CON) A look at Max Lucado's "Cosmic Christmas" and Jay Gary's "Star 2000"

Geisler, Norman

Dean and Professor of Theology and Apologetics at Southern Evangelical Seminary

Editor, Christian Apologetics Journal

Gemeente Gods, De

Dutch cult, disbanded after its leaders were arrested on charges of child sexual abuse and rape.

Founder: Sipke Vrieswijk. Co-leader: his girlfriend, Aagje F.

Vrieswijk claimed to be a prophet - one of the two prophets of Revelation 11. His cult kept members away from friends and family. Practices included sexual abuse and sexual orgies, sometimes under the influence of drugs and alcohol. Members were told that if they left De Gemeente Gods they were lost.

A court in Arnhem, Holland, has sentenced ex-cult leader S. Vrieswijk (70), and his girlfriend (47) to detention and treatment in a psychiatric hospital for the sexual abuse and rape of two underage girls. The abuse took place for many years.

Vrieswijk and his girlfriend were leaders of "De Gemeente Gods" (The Church of Christ - no relation to the denomination, or the International Church of Christ cult). In court, they also admitted to sexual relations with other members of the cult, which from 1983-1993 was headquartered in a monastry in Velddriel (Holland).

In 1993, the cult leaders and several members moved to Cyprus and later to Israel, where the sexual abuse continued. The abused women were told they were the chosen brides of Christ.

The two leaders insist they are not guilty because, they claim, they acted on the will of God.
Nederlands Dagblad; Teletekst; Feb. 12, 1999

- Multimedia -
Secular Het Laatste Oordeel KRO radio documentary, May 27, 1998. RealAudio, 42 minutes. Dutch language Dutch

- News Database -   » About this News Archive
(Feb. 12, 1999) Dutch Cult Leaders Sentenced

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Gemeente van Christus te (plaatsnaam)

Dutch version of the International Churches of Christ (ICOC), considered to be theologically a cult of Christianity.

Note that there are also many churches called 'Gemeente van Christus' that have no connection to the ICOC. De Gemmeente van Christus teaches baptismal regeneration.

Gempel, Bob and Pat

Director of HOPE WorldWide, the charitable arm of the International Churches of Christ.
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Gender-inclusive Bible Versions

General Assembly Church of the First Born

 referral See this page

The Gentle Wind Project

 referral See this page


Divination by means of figures, lines, or geographical features. (Example: Feng Shui)

Giambalvo, Carol

AFF Project Outreach Coordinator. Director of Recovery Workshops. Thought Reform Consultant.

President, reFOCUS

- Books -        Click On Titles To Order At Discount           » More Books
Secular The Boston Movement: Subtitled: "Critical Perspectives of the International Churches of Christ." Edited by Carol Giambalvo and Herbert Rosedale

Gifts, Spiritual

Special abilities given by the Holy Spirit for the common good. The Bible indentifies these gifts in 1 Corinthians 12:4-11 Romans 12:6-8 and
1 Peter 4:10-12

Some people, cessationists, believe these gifts have ceased. Many of those who believe these gifts are still available today overemphasize them, with some even claiming - falsely - that their presence or absence determines whether or not a person is saved.

I believe these gifts are still available today, though not to the extend suggested by many Charismatic Christians. In short: the ministries, effects, and manifestations are distributed by the Holy Spirit "just as He determines." God can, at any time, for any reason, give any of His gifts to any person, for any purpose. Sadly, though, much of what certain churches, movements and individual Christians present as "charismatic gifts and manifestations" does not originate with God, and consequently does not pass Scriptural tests.

- Articles -
Christian Can a Charismatic Theology be Biblical? (Pro) by Jon Ruthven (Note: Ruthven supports the Toronto Blessing Movement).
Christian "Counterfeit" Spiritual Gifts A testimony by Gayle Rogers
Christian On the Cessation of the Charismata: The Protestant Polemic on Post-Biblical Miracles Jon Ruthven, on the continuing availability of spiritual gifts
Christian Spiritual Gifts and Manifestations A brief, verse-by-verse look at 1 Corinthians 14

Grey Zone, Unsure, or Offkey Gilliland, Douglas

 referral See this page

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Global Church of God

San Diego-based splinter group of the Worldwide Church of God. Adheres to Armstrongism.

Magazine: The World Ahead

Global Harvest Ministries

Ministry that prays for mass-conversion of non-Christians by the year 2000. Founded by C. Peter Wagner, and headquartered in World Prayer Center.


 referral See this page


- Articles -
Christian The Attributes of God by Bob Deffinbaugh, a teaching elder at Community Bible Chapel in Richardson, Texas.
Christian Can God create a stone so heavy that He cannot move it? by John Baskette of Answers in Action
Christian How Do We Know God Exists?
Christian Why I Believe In God By Cornelius Van Til


Or Mother Goddess, triple Goddess

See The Mother Goddess and the Horned God, in Craig Hawkins' "The Modern World of Witchcraft."

Most witches experience, believe in, invoke, or worship the Mother or "triple Goddess" and her male consort, the Horned God. Both are believed to be immanent deities accessible to humanity.

The Mother Goddess -- whose three primary roles are mother, maiden, and crone -- is represented by and associated with the moon and its three phases: waxing, full, and waning. She is invoked by a variety of names: Aphrodite, Artemis, Astaroth, Astarte, Athene, Brigit, Ceres, Cerridwen, Cybele, Diana, Demeter, Friga, Gaia, Hecate, Isis, Kali, Kore, Lilith, Luna, Persephone, Venus, and more. She is believed to be eternal.

Goddess Movement

The goddess is embraced by witchcraft, feminism, the occult, and the liberal church. The New Age that is about to dawn upon us will be, according to the occult world, a feminine age. Likewise, those who hold this view believe that this current, masculine age has been an age of destruction and broken relationships among humanity. The New Age with its feminine energies will bring balance to the destructive aspects of the Piscean Age.

Rosemary Radford Ruether in her book, Womanguides: Readings Toward A Feminist Theology, states "It is to the women that we look for salvation in the healing and restorative waters of Aquarius. It is to such a New Age that we look now with hope as the present age of masculism succeeds in destroying itself." According to Starhawk, a feminist and practicing witch, "the symbolism of the Goddess is not a parallel structure to the symbolism of God the Father. The Goddess does not rule the world; She is the world."

While goddess followers are generally resurrecting a female-centered form of pagan worship, the oft-used term "goddess movement" is something of a misnomer. Its adherents aren't organized. There is no one way to commune with the goddess, no coherent doctrine to which everyone subscribes; rather, there's a smorgasbord of beliefs and rituals from which worshipers can pick and choose.

For some women--and fewer men who are sympathetic to them--goddess worship represents an offshoot of feminism, an attempt to apply women's rights to spiritual life. For some, it offers purpose behind the practice of witchcraft, or Wicca (Old English for witch ), a form of nature worship that has long been popular in alternative circles.
Irene Lacher, She Worship: Return of the Great Goddess, Los Angeles Times, Sep. 19, 1990

- Articles -
Christian The Goddess and The Church by Russ Wise

- News Database -   » About this News Archive
(Apr. 10, 1999) Movement calls on God the Mother

Goddess Worship

The worshipping or invoking or experiencing of the Goddess (or goddesses), however she (or they) is conceived of by the worshipper.

God's Creation Outreach Ministry

 referral See this page

God's Nation

Golwalla, Feroze

 referral See this page

Gomes, Alan Dr.

Associate Professor and Chair, Dept. of Theology Talbot School of Theology

Author of "Lead Us Not Into Deception: A Biblical Examination of Moral Government Theology" and "Unmasking The Cults". The latter is part of the 16-volume Zondervan Guide to Cults and Religious Movements, of which he is the editor.

Homepage: http://people.biola.edu/faculty/alang/

Email: alan_gomes@peter.biola.edu

Note: unlike the publisher of Apologetics Index, Alan Gomes does not believe in the existence of cultic mind-control techniques. Instead, Gomes believes "cults must be defined theologically, not behaviorally." Coming from an evangelical Christian perspective, in "Unmasking the Cults," he writes:

We must first determine if a group is cultic by examining its theology, and then we can examine its behavior to see how its beliefs ''cash out'' in practical life.
Alan Gomes, "Unmasking The Cults", p. 47

Gonnet, Roger

French anticult expert. Former Scientologist. Operates Le Secticide, an extensive anticult web site.

"Good Morning, Holy Spirit"

Controversial 1991 book by Benny Hinn. Click here for reviews.

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Good News

Magazine published by the United Church of God


- Articles -
Christian Common Assaults On The Gospel Described and answered. By J. Hampton Keathley III
Christian Fundamentals Of The Faith By Robert Deffinbaugh

Christian Gospel Information Pages, The

Excellent site, that focuses on witnessing to Jehovah's Witnesses.

Operated by Online-veteran Natalie Pappas

Gospel of Thomas

 referral See this page

Christian Gospel Outreach Ministries Online

Rolaant McKenzie's extensive collection of apologetics and background articles on a variety of cults and teachings.


 referral See this page

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Gothard, Bill

Popular, but controversial, seminar teacher who espouses extremely legalistic views. Founder and director, Institute in Basic Life Principles (see details there).

Gott, Ken and Lois

Leaders of Revival Now! Ministries, a British church that is part of the Toronto Blessing Movement. This church used to be called Sunderland Christian Centre.

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Grace Ministries

Kansas City, Kansas. Organization started by Mike Bickle (Kansas City Fellowship) Not to be confused with Grace Ministries International (formerly Grace Fellowship Atlanta), a discipleship training ministry.

"Grace Ministries is a parachurch organization that represents several men who engage in itinerant, allegedly prophetic, ministries...There are seven major facets to Grace Ministries: 1. Apostolic teams; 2. City churches; 3. The House of Prayer; 4. The Joseph Company; 5. The Israel Mandate; 6. A Ministry training center;
7. Shiloh Ministries."
From: "Latter Day Prophets." Media Spotlight. Page 3. Al Dager, quoting GMI material

Grant, W.V.

Disgraced TV Evangelist. Has spent time in prison for tax evasion. Currently again plying his trade - promising miracles and collecting money.

See: Reverend W.V. Grant: An I-Team Investigation

Great Awakening

[S]eries of religious revivals that swept over the American colonies about the middle of the 18th cent. It resulted in doctrinal changes and influenced social and political thought.
Great Awakening, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition

Greater Grace World Outreach (GGWO)

Formerly known as "The Bible Speaks," this church has been in the news when courts "required church to return funds to millionaire contributor for unethical and illegal actions." [Watchman Fellowship]

Allegedly practices shepherding

George Robertson, the Vice President and Chairman of GGWO's Maryland Bible College, is a cult apologist.

From its earliest days the group attracted controversy due to its member's adoring emphasis on Stevens and his claim of a unique relationship with Christ. Many stories abound of members rejecting family and loved ones to join the sect.

In 1983 Christian Research Journal published a report on the sect which stated that the group's doctrine of pastoral authority was authoritarian, unbiblical, and abusive.

Other Protestant ministers (...) have described Grace Gospel's doctrine as one predicated on fear of hell and damnation, and out of step with mainstream Protestant groups.
New jail ministry has controversial ties, The Standard-Times, Sep. 2, 1999

- Articles -
Christian "Greater Grace" Influence in Nashville? Article by Watchman Fellowship. Documents concerns regarding GGWO teachings and practice.
Secular Scientology's Revenge Sep. 9, 1999, New Times LA feature article on Scientology's take-over of the Cult Awareness Network Includes information on Greater Grace controversies.

Greater Ministries

Scam masquerading as a "ministry."

News Archive

Items added after August, 2002:
» Religion News Blog News Collection, various sources

Older Items:
» Database of archived news items
(Includes items added between Oct. 25, 1999 and Jan. 31, 2002. See about this database)

Older item:
(Mar. 3, 1999) Fla. Religious Group Balks at Fine


Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Greater Ministries Official site (Buyer beware: consists mainly of diatribes against the government for having its leaders tried and convicted for fraud).

Great White Brotherhood


ChristianAcademic Groen Van Prinsterer Institute for History, The

The Groen Van Prinsterer Institute for History follows the method of Dutch thinker Guillaume Groen Van Prinsterer (1801-1876). Recognizing the two major philosophical explanations in modern times as either an Enlightenment humanism or a Reformation base, this center collects numerous essays on a widerange of historical subjects.

This institute is part of CAPO Click for more information on this entry

Groothuis, Douglas

Douglas Groothuis is associate professor of philosophy of religion and ethics at Denver Seminary. His books include Unmasking the New Age and Confronting the New Age.

- Articles -
Christian Apologetics, Truth, and Humility
Christian The Book, The Screen, And The Soul An excerpt from his book, "The Soul In Cyberspace"
Christian Six Enemies of Apologetic Engagement

- Books -        Click On Titles To Order At Discount           » More Books
Christian The Soul in Cyberspace Read an excerpt of this highly acclaimed book here
Christian Unmasking The New Age Douglas Groothuis explains what the New Age movement is, analyzes its major doctrines, and shows how it is influencing politics, science, health care, and education.
Christian Are All Religions One?
Christian Christianity That Counts: Being a Christian in a Non-Christian World
Christian Confronting the New Age: How to Resist a Growing Religious Movement provides strategies for bringing the gospel to New Age followers and for confronting New Age practices which are gaining ground in schools and businesses.
Christian Deceived by the Light Betty Eadie's "journey beyond death" experience, she says, was given to her by God. However, none of her proclamations are in agreement with the Bible. In fact, her claims have clear connections with New Age philosophy. People view Eadie's testimony as a source of hope and comfort. Yet the hope and comfort offered by the God of the Bible are far superior to the "revelations" found in Eadie's book.
Christian Jesus in an Age of Controversy Groothuis exposes the questionable logic and faulty conclusions that abound about Jesus in our society, then clearly shows the overwhelming logic and historical evidence that confirms the biblical teaching about Him.
Christian The New Age Jesus
Christian New Age Movement

Groothuis, Rebecca Merrill

- Books -        Click On Titles To Order At Discount           » More Books

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Growing Families International (GFI)

Controversial, for-profit "parenting ministry" with cultic characteristics. Headed by Gary and Anne Marie Ezzo, it promotes a foolish approach to childcare, which the Ezzos wrongly insists is based on Scripture.

Extended Entry See Extended Entry

Guided Imagery

Guided Visualization


A spiritual teacher. The term means "to lift up."

We came to two major conclusions from our studies:

  1. Practically speaking, the gury phenomemon comprises a revival of occult practice and philosophy. We repeatedly encountered themes of shamanism, spiritism, psychic development, modified aspects of witchcraft practice, and other forms of paganism. Such methods do not lead to an alleged spiritual "enlightenment," but rather to harmful spiritual states, including the distinct possibility of mental illness or demon possession. Thus, the gurus are not divine incarnations as they claim, but spiritually possessed occultists whose philosophical and occult teachings are consequential for human society and welfare.
  2. Theologically, the gurus are an anti-Christian force; their religious instruction is not in harmony with biblical or Christian teaching, as claimed, but actively opposes it.
John Ankerberg and John Weldon, Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs Harvest House Publishers, Oregon, 1996.